Scrum Artifacts

What are Scrum Artifacts?
Definition of Scrum Artifacts
The three primary Scrum artifacts are the Product Backlog, an ordered list of everything needed in the product; the Sprint Backlog, a plan for the current sprint consisting of selected Product Backlog items and a plan for delivering the increment; and the Increment itself, which represents a concrete stepping stone toward the Product Goal. The Increment is the sum of all completed Product Backlog items. These artifacts provide transparency and opportunities for inspection and adaptation throughout the Scrum process.

In the realm of product management and operations, Agile Scrum Artifacts play a pivotal role in facilitating effective communication, transparency, and productivity. These artifacts, which include the Product Backlog, Sprint Backlog, and Product Increment, serve as tangible by-products of the Scrum process, providing key insights into the project's progress and direction.

Understanding these artifacts and their functions is crucial for anyone involved in product management and operations, as they form the backbone of the Agile Scrum framework. This glossary entry will delve into the intricacies of these artifacts, offering a comprehensive explanation of their purpose, their role in the Scrum process, and how they can be effectively utilized.

Scrum Artifacts: An Overview

Agile Scrum Artifacts are tangible outputs or tools used in the Scrum framework, a subset of Agile methodology, to track progress and manage work. They provide a visual representation of work that needs to be done, work that is in progress, and work that has been completed.

These artifacts are essential for maintaining transparency and ensuring everyone involved in the project has a clear understanding of what is happening. They are not merely documents, but vital tools for communication and decision-making in the Scrum process.

Product Backlog

The Product Backlog is a prioritized list of all potential features, enhancements, and fixes for the product. It is a dynamic document, constantly evolving based on customer feedback, market changes, and the team's understanding of the product. The Product Owner is responsible for managing and prioritizing the Product Backlog.

Each item on the Product Backlog, known as a Product Backlog Item (PBI), is a high-level description of a feature or functionality that delivers value to the customer. PBIs are usually written in the form of user stories and are accompanied by acceptance criteria.

Sprint Backlog

The Sprint Backlog is a subset of the Product Backlog, containing the PBIs that the team commits to complete in the upcoming Sprint. It is a plan with enough detail that changes in progress can be understood in the Daily Scrum meeting.

The Sprint Backlog is owned by the Development Team and can be adjusted and reprioritized as work progresses throughout the Sprint. It provides a clear picture of the work that the team will be doing during the Sprint, promoting transparency and focus.

Role of Scrum Artifacts in Product Management & Operations

Agile Scrum Artifacts play a crucial role in product management and operations. They provide a clear, visual representation of the product's progress, helping to manage expectations, facilitate communication, and guide decision-making.

These artifacts also promote transparency and accountability, as they make it clear who is responsible for what, what work is being done, and what work remains. This clarity helps to prevent misunderstandings and conflicts, and ensures that everyone is on the same page.

Facilitating Communication

Agile Scrum Artifacts are powerful communication tools. They provide a common language for the team, stakeholders, and anyone else involved in the project. By making the work visible, they help to ensure that everyone understands the project's status and direction.

For example, the Product Backlog communicates the Product Owner's vision for the product, while the Sprint Backlog communicates the team's plan for the upcoming Sprint. The Product Increment, meanwhile, communicates the team's progress and achievements.

Guiding Decision-Making

Agile Scrum Artifacts also play a crucial role in decision-making. They provide the data and insights needed to make informed decisions about the product's direction and priorities.

For instance, the Product Backlog helps the Product Owner to decide what features to prioritize, while the Sprint Backlog helps the team to decide how to best allocate their time and resources. The Product Increment, meanwhile, provides a tangible demonstration of the product's current state, informing decisions about future development.

How to Use Scrum Artifacts

Using Agile Scrum Artifacts effectively requires a solid understanding of their purpose and function, as well as a commitment to the principles of transparency, inspection, and adaptation that underpin the Scrum framework.

It's important to remember that these artifacts are not just documents to be filled out and forgotten. They are living, evolving tools that should be regularly updated and reviewed to reflect the current state of the project.

Managing the Product Backlog

The Product Backlog should be a comprehensive, prioritized list of all potential features, enhancements, and fixes for the product. It should be constantly evolving, with items being added, removed, or reprioritized based on customer feedback, market changes, and the team's understanding of the product.

The Product Owner is responsible for managing the Product Backlog, but they should also seek input from the team and stakeholders. Regular Backlog Refinement sessions can be held to review and update the backlog, ensuring it remains relevant and valuable.

Planning with the Sprint Backlog

The Sprint Backlog is a tool for planning and managing the work to be done during a Sprint. It should contain a realistic amount of work that the team can commit to completing in the Sprint duration, usually two weeks.

The team should regularly review and update the Sprint Backlog during the Sprint, adjusting the plan as necessary based on progress and any new insights. This flexibility is a key aspect of the Agile approach, allowing the team to respond effectively to change.

Specific Examples of Scrum Artifacts

Let's delve into some specific examples of Agile Scrum Artifacts in action, to provide a clearer understanding of how they can be used in real-world product management and operations.

These examples will illustrate how these artifacts can facilitate communication, guide decision-making, and promote transparency and accountability.

Example of a Product Backlog

Imagine a software development team working on a new mobile app. The Product Owner has a vision for the app, which includes features like user profiles, a messaging system, and a photo-sharing function. These features, along with any enhancements or fixes, would be listed on the Product Backlog.

Each feature would be described as a PBI, written in the form of a user story. For example, the user profile feature might be described as: "As a user, I want to create a profile, so that I can personalize my experience." This PBI would be accompanied by acceptance criteria, which define what 'done' looks like for that feature.

Example of a Sprint Backlog

At the start of a Sprint, the team would select a number of PBIs from the Product Backlog to work on. These PBIs would form the Sprint Backlog.

For example, the team might decide to focus on the user profile feature for the upcoming Sprint. The Sprint Backlog would then include all the tasks related to this feature, such as designing the profile layout, coding the profile functionality, and testing the profile feature.


Agile Scrum Artifacts are integral tools in the Scrum framework, providing a visual representation of the work to be done, the work in progress, and the work completed. They facilitate communication, guide decision-making, and promote transparency and accountability, making them indispensable in product management and operations.

By understanding and effectively utilizing these artifacts, teams can enhance their productivity, manage expectations, and deliver products that truly meet the needs and expectations of their customers.